Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this lab experiment is to examine schema development through variable practice.
• 220 cm (h) x 200 cm (w) target, divided into zones 20 cm high, mounted on the wall (see Figure 1)
• Individual Data Sheet
• Group Data Sheet
The task to be performed is a long football snap toward a target. To perform this task, participants will place the ball at the starting location, bend down facing away from the target and snap the ball through their legs towards the target zone.
You will be divided into two groups. Group 1, the Constant Practice group, will perform 30 trials from the same starting location, 5m from the wall. Group 2, the Variable Practice group, will perform 10 trials at each of three different starting locations (4m, 5m, and 7m) for a total of 30 trials. You will work in pairs within each group, taking turns in the roles of experimenter and participant. The experimenter will record the point value of the zone the football made contact with on the target. At the completion of 30 trials, you will switch roles. Participants in both groups will then perform a 10 trial transfer test from a 6m distance.
1. Calculate your mean absolute (AE) and constant error (CE) scores for the practice and transfer trials on the Individual Data Sheet. Absolute error is the unsigned deviation from the target (in other words, perform the calculation without including the positive or negative sign). Constant error is the signed deviation from the target.
2. Gather the mean AE and CE scores from the other members of Groups 1 and 2 and record the mean scores for each individual into the appropriate column in the Group Data Sheet.
3. Create a bar graph at www.onlinecharttool.com/graph?selected_graph=bar illustrating the AE and CE group scores for the transfer test.
1. Explain the effects of constant versus variable practice during (a) the practice phase and (b) the transfer test.
2. Examine the bar graph illustrating AE and CE group scores. AE provides information about the magnitude of error while CE provides an indication of directional bias or directional error tendencies. What do these two scores tell you about the effects of constant and variable practice?
3. Do the results of this experiment support the notion that variable practice facilitates schema development? Explain your response.