Unintended Information Technology Adoption

Bowers (2011) asserts that changes in the workplace are naturally bound to create uncertainties, which can be challenging, especially if the changes occur when they were least expected. Michael, Ross, and Shirly Bar-Lev (2007) also share the same sentiment, but consider the challenges as unintended consequences of information technologies. Often, change resistant is among the major challenges facing organizations.

According to Bowers (2011), the team manager should first identify the reasons why HIT change would is necessary. Once the need for change has been identified, it should be communicated to all the stakeholders and alternative sought. Change resistance can be noticed by direct voicing among the informal groups, burnouts, absents, and failure to heed advice from people above. For HIT change to sail through, every member of the team needed to have embraced and owned it in their practice. Bowers (2011), stresses upon Lewin’s change model of unfreezing change, unfreezing practice, moving change, and finally refreezing change.

At the time of unfreezing change, analysis and prediction must be made how nurses would react to a proposed change when unfreezing. The process involves evaluation of the existing situation. It also involves determining what should be done to realize the best outcome. The determination makes it easier to identify the forces that drive change and the forces that can cause resistance against it (Bower, 2011). During unfreezing, nurses should be encouraged to take active part in analyzing opportunities and identify factors that can cause resistance.

Change unfreezing should be followed by unfreezing practice. During this phase, the team overseeing the change process must be ready to talk openly with members of the team regarding the problems in the current system and the need to adopt a new system as a solution to the current problem. All the stakeholders have the opportunity to share their views and complaints.

After unfreezing change, it should be moved into organization culture. This phase occurs after identifying obstacles and opportunities. When everyone gets an opportunity to manage the ongoing process of change, it becomes easy to reduce the possibility of resistance. Team members support one another constructively to ensure that they know how to use the new system.  

The final phase of the change process according to Bowers (2011) is refreezing. During this phase open communication as well as team involvement is established because everyone feels empowered, so they embrace change. Effective implementation of HIT minimizes its challenges and problems associated with its implementation.


Bowers, B. (2011). Managing Change by Empowering Staff. Nursing Times, 107 (32/33), 19-21.