2-2 Worksheet: Research Methods and Design
1. Choose two research methods (observational, experimental, retrospective, cross-sectional, or prospective) and provide a definition for each.
The APA Dictionary of Psychology defines prospective research as a research method that commences with the present, following research participants forward in time to investigate trends, predictions, and results, for example, randomized controlled studies and longitudinal studies (American Psychological Association, 2022). On the other hand, it defines retrospective research as non-experimental, observational research that aims to describe the present based on past events, i.e., research that commences with the present, following research participants backward in time (American Psychological Association, 2022).
2. How do the methods that you chose apply to healthcare research? Provide specific examples.
In healthcare research, prospective research is used to follow a group of similar people who differ in terms of certain aspects under investigation over time to examine how these aspects influence the rates of a specific outcome (National Cancer Institute, 2022)). For example, an investigator may follow a group of young truck drivers who differ based on their smoking behaviors to test the hypothesis that fifteen-year cancer of the lung will be more prevalent among heavy smokers, followed by those who smoke moderately and then those who do not smoke.
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