Across the world, there is unequal labor force participation for men and women. The labor gap is untapped economic area, and countries can increase their GDP through the help of women’s labor, an example of the diverse labor success appears in various European models. According to Alter (2015), Global economic growth can reach $28 with equal inclusion of women in the labor sector. The results are based on findings of McKinsey Global Institute a constituent McKinsey & Company. Increase of women in economic participation will result into higher payoffs, as compared to the trending economy.
The world has realized 20% increase in women labor force between 1980 and 2010, these are statistics collected from 60 countries. In the United States for, example only 44% of women found themselves working in 1965, but the number has escalated to 74% by 2010. As compared to men, women are doing a lot of unpaid work (75%). The economy will add $10 trillion if women are paid their family and household chores. The findings by McKinsey Global Institute shows that men still dominate the leadership positions, while women dominated the unpaid homecare sector. There is a high demand to rescue the economic situation, among the recommendation is by ensuring equal work distribution among the working genders. Men should play a proportional role in family care as women also climb the leadership ladder (Alter 1).
Berdahl (2007) document a primary analysis of the influence of the female behavior and surrounding at work on the sexual harassment. Based on the three studies conducted in the research work, women with masculine personalities suffered from sexual harassment more than women whose female personalities dominated. It also showed that women were to be sexually harassed in male-dominated job contexts (Berdahl 1).
Uppity women are people who have worked beyond their gender limitations. The women in this category have shared the platforms dominated by men. They have been identified as the close competitors to men. The women have become subject to sexual harassment owing to their aggressive. As compared to the submissive woman, the assertive uppity woman have experience all manner of ridicule in the male dominated platforms. The women, apart from being objectified have shown slow professional growths owing to job ceiling by their employers. As compare to more ‘feminine women’ who have accepted the idolized ‘woman’ by men, the uppity woman suffers a lot of in terms of sexual harassment. These are among the factors that have contributed to less women uptake of the jobs dominated by men (Parrillo 1).
There is a lot of income parity among different genders. According to Darity, William, Mason, and Patrick (1998), United Stated has shown a significant parity in income across genders. The authors adopted different theoretical models to explain the presence of racial and gender discrimination in the modern society. After the minority groups, women became the victims to economic parity. However, the trend seems to differ across the years (Darity, William, Mason, and Patrick 64). The evidence of the unequal income emanates from historical injustices that women and minority groups were subjected during the early days of the national development. While they have struggles to keep pace with men, women income have lagged behind, an indicator of their less empowerment. Some nations have come up with policies to ensure equitable income distribution among diverse genders. Among these is the California bill, which aimed at ensuring equal income among people irrespective of their gender (Ross 1). However, the researchers are still grappling with data issues owing to less statistical documentation of the wage parity information
Gender is a product of socialization. Gender has a unique presentation among different cultures (Devor 415). Some communities or nations have shown strong gender divisions lines, while other has created a minimal gender line between the two. For example, the Eastern communities have a unique presentation of women, as compared to the West, which has a more accommodating environment for all genders. Gender representation influences people economic activities and their societal powers (Devor 416). Gender views are historical products (Kenschaft, Clark, and Ciambrone 34). The workplace view of women and men is a product of our traditional misconceptions, and as a result, there has been a slow growth in accepting the norms of gender equality across the world. According to the researchers, the society is strongly controlled by the traditional norms rather than our own expectations.
There is a stark gender contrast in work place norms. Men and women have none proportional wages and promotion in America. Evidences suggest that women are paid less than men are; consequently, they are promoted to the leading positions less often than males. Men tend to rise in their jobs faster than women do. Additionally, the work values in most organizations tend to accommodate men as compared to women (Lipmanaug 1). Evidences show that the positive view given to working class men as compared to women, affect their careers.
Alter, Charlotte. “Gender Inequality Costs As Much As the American and Chinese Economies Combined”. TIME 24 Sept. 2015. Retrieved from: http://time.com/4045115/gender-inequality-economy/
Berdahl, Jennifer L. “The Sexual Harassment of Uppity Women”. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 92, No. 2, 2007: 425–437
Darity, Jr. William A., Mason, Patrick L. “Evidence on Discrimination in Employment: Codes of Color, Codes of Gender”. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 2, Spring, 1998: pp. 63-90
Devor, Holly. Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meaning of Gender. Rereading America. Colombo G. et al. Boston. Bedford. St. Martin’s. 2001. pp.415-423.
Kenschaft, Lori , Clark, Roger, Ciambrone, Desiree. Gender Inequality in Our Changing World: A Comparative Approach. Routledge, 2015.
Lipmanaug, Joanne. “Let’s Expose the Gender Pay Gap”. The New York Times 13 August 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/13/opinion/lets-expose-the-gender-pay-gap.html
Ross, Janell. “California is Taking a Bold Step forward on Gender Pay Equality”. Washington Post 21 September 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/09/21/california-will-soon- do-something-pretty-major-about-the-gender-pay-gap/
Parrillo, Vincent N.”Causes of Prejudice”. Rereading America. Ed.: Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, Bonnie Lisle, 2004, pp. 577-591