Case study 3: Food and Nutrition

Part A

Jamie is 6 years’ old first born daughter to Henrik family from the coastal area of New South Wales. Jamie recorded breathing loss up to three times a night during her sleep time. She feels cranky in the mornings and find school preparation cumbersome and while at school, teachers complain of her excessive sleeping behaviour in class. Her medical history shows that sometimes during her visit to hospital she recorded loss of sleep at night, sleeping with open mouth, enuresis, sleeping with open mouth, and restlessness. The doctor determine that Jamie was overweight and her problems were associated with obesity.

Part B

Based on 2015 report, the prevalence of overweight and obsess primary school attending children hit the highest, 22.9% with 7.1% identified as obese (Chaput, Saunders, Carson, 2017). In secondary school, the figures were 21.7% overweight and 5.8% were identified to be obese (Chaput, Saunders, & Carson, 2017). Additionally, morbid or severe obesity increased has increased in the group (NCD, 2017). The statistics are also affecting social-economic aspects of the society. Notably, the rates are higher among the aboriginal children population; however, among the non-Aboriginals, the cases increase with age.

The WHO's Ottawa Charter identifies three priority action areas. However, only one is more individual targeted with most focus on community or policy levels. The Ottawa Charter has detailed major areas in nutritional safety and the critical aspects of health (Colchero, Popkin, Rivera, & Ng, 2016). At personal level, the Ottawa chatter advocates for individuals to develop personal skills, such as excise and proper eating habits. Among the explanation given to the Australian obesity incidences is lifestyle: dietary practices, weight, physical activities, and cultural norms (NCD, 2017). Among the refugees, logistical difficulties (Chaput, Saunders, Carson, 2017). Worldwide, the main exposure risks to obesity is overconsumption of energy laden foods and poor or lack of exercise programs. Other factors include, genetics, and biology. Other sedentary causes include poor sleep patterns and the quantity of sedentary times significantly influence obesity cases.  

According to WHO, obesity can be managed through a coordinated effort. In response, it established the Commission on Ending Obesity. The commission came up with six action for managing obesity, one on treatment and five on preventive measures. Obesity can be transferred from mother to child; therefore, as part of the pre-conception and antenatal care, mothers should maintain healthy weight before and during pregnancy (NCD, 2017). In Australia, one in every 5 children is obese; therefore, intervention strategies should focus on the group as at risk population (NCD, 2017). Promotion of breastfeeding and reduction of screen time have been the most successful strategies. Early care education programs targeting the mother and child should be encouraged.  

Community-based and School-based programs targeting the at risk. While there is a strong evidence of moderate to better behavioural change and physical activities, success on obesity managed within the group has not been reached. Therefore, more programs including physical activities, nutrition, and awareness are essential for the group (Colchero, Popkin, Rivera, & Ng, 2016). WHO also recommend focus on the upstream obesity determinants that involve the principal stakeholders including the government, local, and international contributors. Governments have come up with tax policies targeted at energy dense materials to reduce their consumption (NCD, 2017). On the other hand, policies have been made to reduce child exposure to energy laden marketing (Colchero, Popkin, Rivera, & Ng, 2016). Additionally, some governments are promoting public transport as a way of increasing human activity.

WHO also outline clinical guidance for obesity management. The guidance includes anticipatory guidance for adolescents, prospective parents, families to support healthy weight and similar control behaviour. Clinics should provide weight monitoring and counselling services in the community (Chaput, Saunders, & Carson, 2017). Finally, educational and sensation programs should be rolled out to reduce weight stigma and promote active health seeking behaviour among the target groups.

In Australia Obesity prevention initiatives (CBI) play a significant role in rolling out programs targeting diverse obesity intervention. The group funds, develop programs, and initiate them. CBI has rolled out many programs in Australia in collaboration with WHO and the federal government, among other stakeholders (Colchero, Popkin, Rivera, & Ng, 2016). On its part, the Australian Federal Government launched through the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH) has availed a lot of funds targeting obesity management. Other partners include Healthy Communities Initiative, Healthy Workers' Initiative, and the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Reform Council (Chaput, Saunders, & Carson, 2017). A lot of funds have been allocated to overweight health promotion and treatment programs.