Solved: Conceptual-Theoretical-Empirical Structure (CTE)

Comfort Theory: C-T-E Structure

The middle range theory of comfort for education, healthcare practice, and research was developed by Katherine Kolcaba in the 90s. The theory explains that patients are the individuals, communities, families, and/or institutions that require healthcare services. The theory further highlights that the environment is the patients surrounding or aspects that health professionals can influence to boost the patients comfort. Besides, nursing practice is assessing a patient s comfort requirements through the development of necessary care plans and evaluation of the patient s comfort upon utilizing the care plans developed. Rizk (2018) highlights that this theory is highly significant as it emphasizes the importance of comfort in achieving quality healthcare. This paper will examine the Conceptual-Theory-Empirical (C-T-E) Structure of the middle-range theory of comfort through a 5-level hierarchical structure to unite the views of Katherine Kolcaba into an integrated outlook of the nursing industry and professional practice.

Evaluation of the CTE Linkages

Kolcaba identifies three key aspects that make up the concept of comfort; the aspect of ease, relief, and transcendence (Boudiab & Kolcaba, 2015). The aspect of relief in achieving a patient s comfort is highly significant as it occurs when specific patient needs are attained. For instance, after surgical procedures, patients experience postoperative pain; they will only achieve relief after administering the prescribed analgesia. This means that they will be in a relaxed state of contentment, where the aspect of ease applies. According to Lima et al. (2016), the aspect of ease explains the feelings of the patient after successfully countering issues that cause anxiety. It will be effortless for the patients to rise above their challenges after attaining the aspect of ease, a state that Kolcaba explains as transcendence. In nursing practice, the patients will indicate pain, which either pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment options will ease before the patients can be able to tolerate it (Wright, 2017).

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